Published 1980 .
Written in EnglishRead online
Thesis(Ph.D.) - Loughborough University of Technology 1980.
|Statement||by A.A. Hassan.|
Download Factors affecting adhesion of natural rubber-to-brass plated steel wire
The rubber adhesion to brass plated steel is considered to be much better than the adhesion of the rubber to unplated steel. In the former case no bonding agent is required, while in the latter case the use of a bonding agent is essential. Factors affecting adhesion of natural rubber-to-brass plated steel wire hose and radial ply tyres has reawakened interest in the parameters affecting the adhesion of rubber to brass plated steel wire.
My research work is an attempt to improve and explain the rubber to metal bonding technology; it is concerned with the effect of rubber Author: Ali A.
Hassan. Adhesion of natural rubber to brass plated steel cords is of extreme importance to the rubber industry in general, and the tire industry in particular. Here, we present a novel promoter, Kaolin Modified Rubber (KMR) and study its use in promoting adhesion of such a system compared to a widely used commercial promoter in the industry (manobond).Cited by: Adhesion of natural rubber to brass plated steel cords is of extreme importance to the rubber industry in general, and the tire industry in particular.
Factors Affecting Cord-to-Rubber. Adhesion of natural rubber to brass plated steel cords is of extreme importance to the rubber industry in general, and the tire industry in particular.
Adhesion samples are composed of brass-plated steel cord (3× mm) and the rubber compound. Five T-test adhesion samples with different cure levels were prepared by changing temperature and time for the cure of these composites.
The plating weight of brass on the brass-plated steel cord manufactured by the Kiswire. Conclusions Rubber-to-brass bonding is adversely affected by the wire drawing lubricant used which should be removed ff reproducible adhesion is to be obtained.
An eight-fold increase in bond strength can be obtained by degreasing the wire. The age of the wire is also an important though secondary factor governing bond optimization. Indeed, adhesion between brass-plated steel and natural rubber can frequently be improved by the use of the retarder, CTP (Coran, ), or by using a more delayed-action accelerator such as N-dicyclohexylbenzothiazolesulfenamide (DCBS) (Albrecht, ).
Failure rarely occurs between the rubber and the copper sulfide film. Van Ooij reported the bonding theory and mechanism of brass-plated steel to rubber compound.
16,19,26, By the reaction of a thin brass layer (about nm) and active sulfurating species in the. Several factors in rubber stocks were demonstrated to be important in the adhesion of polyester tire cords to rubber compounds.
The retained adhesion of polyester tire cords, determined after heat‐aging laboratory cord–rubber samples at elevated temperatures, was improved by (a) eliminating the sources of amines in the elastomers and compounding ingredients, (b) reducing the moisture.
The adhesion of brass plated steel cord to rubber is improved by treating the cord in a dilute acidic alcohol dip followed by treatment with H 2 S gas or by treating the cord in a dilute aqueous ammonia dip, preferably followed by treatment with H 2 S gas, before combining the cord with a vulcanizable rubber compound and vulcanizing the same.
A new mechanism for adhesion degradation of rubber to brass-plated steel cords is proposed based on these corrosion studies. It is proposed that the aging of the cord, which results in loss of rubber-to-brass bonding, is due to iron dissolution from the sulfidized tire cord.
Rubber to metal primers contain organic resins which react with most metal (steel, aluminum, stainless steel, copper, brass) surfaces during the vulcanization process to form a chemical bond to the metal. They also contain polymers which allow for better film formation and act as an anchor for the subsequent application of the adhesive.
The investigation of the adhesion layer between rubber and brass-coated steel wires is a challenging task due to its strong bonding. We explore the possibilities of olefin-metathesis as a method to.
The effect of the cure temperature of rubber compound on the adhesion with brass-plated steel cord was investigated in conjunction with the formation, growth and degradation of the adhesion interphase formed between the rubber compound and brass-plated steel cord. The effect of stearic acid loading in rubber on the adhesion between rubber compounds and brass-plated steel cords was examined in respect to aging treatments and cure conditions.
The adhesion interphase of a thin brass film/rubber compound containing stearic acid was investigated using an Auger electron spectrometer. Brass is a metal. As for all metals, you'll need a brand of glue that creates a chemical bond in order to glue pieces of brass together.
When you need to glue brass, be sure not to. The use of a small amount of a polyhydroxy containing anthraquinone compound in a rubber ply or skim stock greatly improves the humid aged adhesion of the rubber stock to brass plated steel cords or fabric.
This invention is particularly useful in tires with steel cords or belts. The following formula describes the anthraquinone compound: ##STR1## where two of the R's are hydroxyl radicals and.
The adhesion between a rubber compound containing epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) and a brassplated steel cord was studied to shed light on the role of ENR for the improvement of adhesion. The addition of ENR in the rubber compound caused cure rate to decrease, and as ENR loading increased, modulus and hardness increased while tensile strength and elongation at break decreased.
Numerical simulation model was adopted to investigate electro-cleaning of steel wire. • Roughness (R z) of steel wire decreases with increasing current density. Simulated roughness (R z) of steel wire varies closely with experimental result.
A/m 2 current density provides the maximum steel-rubber adhesion strength. R z ~ μm and R a ~ μm provide maximum adhesion. Good adhesion between the rubber skim compound and brass plated steel cord plays a crucial role in order to absorb the impact properly and to bear the load that comes on the tyre .
Since last years, nanoclays have been used as potential reinforcing agent for various elastomers. The adhesion property between rubber compounds containing different types of adhesion promoters (resinous adhesion promoter (containing both methylene donor and methylene acceptor), cobalt salt and zinc borate) and different loading amounts of sulfur and brass-plated steel cords was investigated to understand the effect of sulfur loading in the rubber compounds on their adhesion.
Brass-plated steel tire cords form an essential strengthening component of a radial automobile tire. Adhesion between rubber compound and brass-plated steel tire cord is crucial in governing the. increase rubber-to-metal adhesion, but not to the extent that SR and SR do.
Figure 6 Rubber-To-Steel Adhesion 0 Silicone Rubber EVA EPDM Natural Rubber Hypalon Shear Adhesion (PSI) Peroxide Alone Saret and Peroxide Figure 5 EPDM Adhesion Effect of SR Coagent Concentration 0 04 8 12 16 20 Coagent.
This invention relates to the adhesion of rubber to brass, and more particularly, it relates to the adhesion of rubber to brass plated steel wire tire cord.
Applicant's copending U.S. Pat. application filedSer.and entitled "Adhesion of Brass to Rubber" discloses a process of treating brass with ammonium, Na, K and.
The effect of adding silica to rubber compound on its adhesion to brass-plated steel cord was investigated. Silica reduced the curing rate and enhanced the physical properties of the rubber compound, especially after thermal aging, when 20 phr of silica was added.
The pull-out force increased considerably with silica loading both before and after thermal aging. This copper sulfide formed a weak, brittle bond with the underlying brass plated steel cord and was deleterious to good adhesion.
The key to good adhesion was the formation of the rubber, sulfur, copper bond with little or no formation of copper sulfide. The adhesion of brass plated steel cord to rubber is improved by treating the cord in a dilute acidic alcohol dip followed by treatment with H2S gas or by treating the cord in a dilute aqueous ammonia dip, preferably followed by treatment with H2S gas, before combining the cord with a vulcanizable rubber compound and vulcanizing the same.
Brass coated steel wire for hose reinforcement, also called rubber hose steel wire，is used as braided or spiral wrapped reinforcement for rubber and thermoplastic high pressure hosesmm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm are available.
Hengxing can offer customized types according to your specific requirements. Cross-Sectional Area: If the cross-section of a material is large, it can allow more current to pass through it. Similarly, a thin cross-section restricts current flow.
Length of the Conductor: A short conductor allows current to flow at a higher rate than a long conductor. It's a bit like trying to move a lot of people through a hallway. The adhesion property between rubber compounds containing different types of adhesion promoters (resinous adhesion promoter (methylene donor/acceptor), cobalt salt and zinc borate) and loading amounts of accelerator and brass-plated steel cord was investigated to understand the effect of accelerator loading in rubber compounds on their adhesion characteristics to the brass-plated steel.
Here, we present a detailed study on the effect of this novel adhesion promoter on the dynamic adhesion between NR and brass-plated steel cords. Dynamic adhesion is of extreme importance in many applications especially car tires, conveyor belts, engine mounts and many other applications that benefit from the rigidity of metallic parts and.
Bond fatigue life of brass coated wire to rubber adhesion assemblies is greatly improved at reduced concentrations of zinc oxide.
Further improvement occurs when carbon black is partially replaced by precipitated, fine particle silica. Compounding for Wire Adhesion The adhesion of rubber to brassed steel wire is dependent upon many factors, all of which can be controlled reasonably well by the engineer or compounder.
However, variables are present which may elude either identification or control. Books Help Wanteds Advertise on this site FORUM current topics. 60, Q&A topics -- Education, Aloha, & Fun topic Brass plating defects Q.
We have received brass plated steel wire parts from two vendors. One has a normal smooth mirror-like finish while the other has a leather-like appearance when viewed at 10X magnification. Adhesion of tire bead wire to rubber: some findings. In this study, immersion plating of motor tire bead wire was carried out in baths of different concentration levels of CuSO4, H2SO4, and SnSO4.
The oxidation of plated wire was prevented by applying more» $ - Tech. Paper #P (List Price) $ - Tech. Paper #P (Member Price). The adhesion of an electrodeposited coating to its substrate is as important as its thickness and selection of the plated layer to the overall performance of the finishing system.
The ability to properly test for adhesion of plated layers to a product is of utmost importance. Material: Against Material: Static Coefficient of Friction: Dry Contact: Lubricated Contact: Aluminum. Aluminum: Aluminum-Bronze Alloy: Steel Copper is a versatile metal used in thousands of everyday products.
It oxidizes readily to form a distinctive coating known as patina. The patina gives the Statue of Liberty its characteristic appearance, but the oxidation of copper can also cause undesirable effects under some circumstances.
A resorcinol-blocked isocyanate compounding resin can be used to promote adhesion to brass-plated steel cords and improve adhesion to PET synthetic cord or fabric. A representative structure of Penacolite resin C is shown (figure 5), which includes its softening point and free resorcinol content.
steel cords are embedded to give rubber a structural strength while maintaining flexibility. Strong adhesion between rubber and the steel cords is crucial for a good performance of these rubber products.
In automotive tires, brass-plated steel cords are exclusively used to realize stiff rubber-cord adhesion. It has already been recognized.Cohesive strength is the internal strength of an adhesive, the ability of the adhesive to hold itself together under stress. The higher the cohesive strength, the stronger the adhesive.
It’s important to consider the specific types of stress that will act on an adhesive joint. Common stresses include shear, cleavage, peel and tensile. BACKGROUND. 1. Field of the Invention. The present invention relates to brass coated steel elements for use in the reinforcement of vulcanized rubber articles and in particular to brass-coated steel wire and cord elements having improved, durable adhesion properties for use in high-performance rubber applications such as steel-belt reinforced pneumatic vehicle tires.